Esophageal varices are abnormal blood vessels (veins) that develop in the esophagus. They have abnormally thin walls, and the blood pressure within them is very high. This combination makes esophageal varices very dangerous, because they can burst and cause life-threatening bleeding. Treatment is aimed at preventing bleeding.
Endoscopic band ligation is the use of elastic bands to treat the varices. It is done as part of an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. A gastroenterologist places small rubber bands directly over the varices. This will stop the bleeding and get rid of the varices.